Free public transport: Bibliography

The New Mobility Agenda
  • New Mobility Briefs
  • Briefs Work Pad
  • NTL Bibliographic Export
    Date: Thursday, August 17, 2006
    Source: Transportation Research Board
    Title: LEGAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF FREE TRANSIT IN MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS
    Accession No: 00239583
    Authors:
  • Dillon, R W
  • Bailey, J A
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Northwestern University
    Transportation Center
    Evanston, IL USA
  • Publication Date: 19700800
    Description: 95 p.
    Abstract: THE REPORT IS A FUNDAMENTAL INQUIRY OF WHETHER FREE TRANSPORTATION IS LEGALLY AND POLITICALLY FEASIBLE IN URBAN AREAS. THE PAPER EXAMINES THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL WELFARE ASPECTS AS THEY TEND TO FAVOR OR DISFAVOR FREE TRANSIT ADOPTION. IT USES THE PROPOSED BOSTON FREE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM AS AN EXAMPLE. A MAJOR SECTION OF THE DISCUSSION LOOKS AT THE FAIRNESS AND RATIONALITY OF THE EXISTING FINANCING METHODOLOGY. BASIC LEGAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF ALTERNATIVE TAXING APPROACHES ARE PROPOSED AND DESCRIBED. THE LEGITIMACY OF FREE TRANSIT AS A GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY IS EXAMINED INCLUDING ARGUMENTS ON PUBLIC PURPOSE AND HOME RULE THEORIES. A SECTION IS DEVOTED TO THE COMPLEXITIES OF CURRENT DIVISIONS OF METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITIES RELEVANT TO URBAN TRANSPORTATION. /AUTHOR/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    UMTA-URT-21(69)
    TRT Terms: Economic factors; Fares; Finance; Financing; Free fares; Legal factors; Social factors; Taxation; Transportation
    Other Terms: Free transportation; Legal aspect; Sociological aspects; Transportation finance
    Subject Areas: H11 ADMINISTRATION
    Report Number: Res Rept
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-208246
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: THE FEASIBILITY OF FARE-FREE TRANSIT IN LOS ANGELES
    Accession No: 00240167
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • California University, Los Angeles
    School of Architecture and Urban Planning
    Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA
  • Publication Date: 19730600
    Description: 169 p.
    Abstract: THIS REPORT EXPLORES THE FEASIBILITY OF FARE-FREE TRANSIT IN LOS ANGELES FROM FOUR PERSPECTIVES: HISTORY OF TRANSPORTATION IN LOS ANGELES, RIDERSHIP ASPECTS OF FARE-FREE TRANSIT, FINANCING CONSIDERATIONS AND SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS. THERE ARE SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EACH OF THESE CONSIDERATIONS AS WELL AS A SUMMARY OF ALL CONCLUSIONS REACHED ON THE SUBJECT. A SIMULATION MODEL WAS USED TO DERIVE A POSITION ON THE EFFECT OF NO FARE ON RIDERSHIP; A BRIEF SURVEY OF KEY POLITICAL FIGURES WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THEIR SUPPORT OF SUCH AN ISSUE. /UMTA/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Contract CA-11-0009 UMTA-CA-11-0009-73-2
    TRT Terms: Economics; Environmental impacts; Fares; Financing; Free fares; Politics; Public transit; Simulation; Social factors
    Other Terms: Environmental effects; Free transportation; Mass transit economics; Simulation models; Sociological aspects
    Subject Areas: H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    Report Number: Final Res
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB 222 536
    Document Source:
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE TRANSIT: PRACTICAL GOAL OR IMPOSSIBLE DREAM?
    Accession No: 00240979
    Journal Title:
  • Railway Age
    Publisher: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation
    ISSN: 0033-8826 OCLC: 1586268
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation
    345 Hudson Street
    New York, NY 10014 USA
  • Publication Date: 19680304
    Abstract: AN EXAMPLE OF WHERE FREE TRANSIT CAN AND DOES WORK IS COMMERCE, CALIFORNIA, WHICH FOUR YEARS AGO LAUNCHED A FREE- RIDE POLICY ON ITS BUSES. RATHER THAN LET AN AILING BUS OPERATION JUST DISAPPEAR, THE CITY DETERMINED THAT TRANSIT MUST CONTINUE TO RUN. IN 1965, THE LINE CARRIED ALMOST 500,000 RIDERS, AND THE OPERATION COST ABOUT $80,000 FOR PERSONNEL, FUEL AND MAINTENANCE. COST WERE PAID OUT OF TAX DOLLARS, ON THE GROUND THAT TRANSIT IS AN ESSENTIAL MUNICIPAL SERVICE. /AUTHOR/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Vol 164, No 9, P 24
    TRT Terms: Bus transit; Buses; Costs; Economics; Emergency vehicles; Fuels; Maintenance practices; Personnel; Public transit; Taxation; Transportation; Urban transportation
    Other Terms: Bus transportation (Intracity); Buses (Vehicles); Maintenance operations; Public service vehicles; Transportation economics
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE TRANSIT REVISITED
    Accession No: 00242589
    Authors:
  • Kraft, G
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Public Policy
  • Publication Date: 19730000
    Description: p. 79-105
    Abstract: THE EVIDENCE ON OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND DETAILED QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS INDICATE THAT TRIPMAKERS ARE NOT VERY SENSITIVE TO TRANSIT FARES BUT ARE RELATIVELY MUCH MORE SENSITIVE TO TRANSIT SERVICE. THERE IS LITTLE HOPE THAT MANY AUTO TRAVELERS CAN BE DIVERTED TO TRANSIT THROUGH FREE OR REDUCED FARES. THE COSTS OF FREE TRANSIT ARE VERY HIGH ALTHOUGH IT WOULD PROVIDE MANY OF THE BENEFITS ATTRIBUTED TO IT. FOR A SMALL FRACTION OF THE COST OF NO-FARE TRANSIT, SERVICE COULD BE IMPROVED VERY SUBSTANTIALLY WHILE GIVING MANY OF THE SAME BENEFITS.
    TRT Terms: Benefit cost analysis; Costs; Fares; Free fares; Level of service; Quantitative analysis; Trip generation
    Other Terms: Free transportation; Service
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: LEGAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF FREE TRANSIT IN MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS
    Accession No: 00238946
    Authors:
  • Dillon, R W
  • Bailey, J A
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Northwestern Univ Transportation Center
  • Publication Date: 19700800
    Abstract: PUBLIC TRANSIT SERVICES WOULD BE FINANCED ENTIRELY BY PUBLIC REVENUES, COLLECTED AND ADMINISTERED ON A REGIONAL BASIS. THE BOSTON FREE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM IS A SELECTED CASE STUDY. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSAL ARE EXAMINED WITH REFERENCE TO FARE COLLECTION COST SAVINGS, RELIEF FROM TRANSIT ROBBERY, FASTER SERVICE AT REDUCED COST, IMPROVED ACCESSIBILITY WITHIN URBAN AREAS, REJUVINATION OF CENTRAL CITIES, AND REDUCED LEVELS OF AIR POLLUTION AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION. OPPOSING ARGUMENTS INCLUDE INCREASED OPERATING COSTS, INEFFICIENT ATTAINMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE OBJECTIVES, AND THE INEQUITIES OF APPLYING NON USER-ORIENTED REVENUES TO FINANCE MASS TRANSPORTATION. FINANCIAL SUPPORT IS EXAMINED WITH REFERENCE TO TAX OPTIONS OF THE CENTER CITY AND METROPOLITAN DISTRICTS. THE STATUTORY LEGITIMACY OF FREE TRANSIT IS DISCUSSED WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION FOCUSED UPON "PUBLIC PURPOSE" AND "HOME RULE" REQUIREMENTS IN EXISTING LEGISLATION. THE STATE-METROPOLITAN POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT IS ALSO DISCUSSED. NECESSARY REGIONAL TAXING POWERS CAN BE OBTAINED FROM ENABLING LEGISLATION PASSED BY THE STATE. THE STATE-URBAN CLEAVAGE THUS REPRESENTS THE PRINCIPAL POLITICAL OBSTACLE TO IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE FREE TRANSIT PROGRAM. /UMTA/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    PROJ NO URT-21
    TRT Terms: Legal factors; Legislation; Metropolitan areas; Politics; Public transit; Revenues; States; Taxation
    Other Terms: Enabling legislation; Legal aspect
    Subject Areas: H70 LAW; H12 PLANNING
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB 208 246
    Document Source:
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FINDINGS OF PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE TRENTON, NEW JERSEY OFF-PEAK FARE-FREE TRANSIT DEMONSTRATION
    Accession No: 00301254
    Authors:
  • Connor, D L
  • Period Covered: 771100-7806
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • De Leuw, Cather and Company
    1250 Broadway
    New York, NY 10001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19790100
    Description: 58 p.
    Abstract: The Mercer County Fare-Free Transit Demonstration is one of two tests of the effects of eliminating system-wide off-peak fares. (The other demonstration was run concurrently in Denver, Colorado.) Evaluation of the project is being conducted by DeLeuw, Cather and Company under the direction of the Transportation Systems Center. It is being conducted on the Mercer Metro bus system in Mercer County, New Jersey. This report was prepared as an interim informational summary of the progress of the Trenton Fare-Free Demonstration. It presents findings of interim analyses regarding ridership impacts; passenger profiles and trip characteristics; and transportation supply and cost impacts. Given the limitation of this report, it can be useful as an interim informational summary pending completion of the full evaluation and preparation of the final project report. The report concludes that: Mercer Metro off-peak ridership has increased 45-50 percent during all free-fare periods; the Bus drivers have complained that the program has caused them to be late more often and to miss breaks because of more passengers and additional stops; and the cost of additional bus and driver service has increased but has not yet been estimated. /UMTA/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Related report of this demonstration project is: "Trenton Free-Fare Demonstration Project," December 1978 (PB 291-455). Sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration.
    TRT Terms: Costs; Demonstration projects; Economic impacts; Free fares; Off peak periods; Ridership; Traffic; Travel patterns; Trip purpose
    Other Terms: Free transportation; Off-peak traffic; User characteristics
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING
    Contract Number: DOT-TSC-1409
    Report Number: UMTA-NJ-52-0001-79-1Intrm Rpt.
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-298893
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: INTERIM ANALYSIS OF THE FREE-FARE TRANSIT EXPERIMENTS
    Accession No: 00303946
    Authors:
  • Studenmund, A H
  • Swann, S
  • Conner, D
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 719
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19790000
    Description: p. 13-21; Figures(4); References(9)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the early results of the two systemwide off-peak free-fare transit experiments being conducted in Trenton, New Jersey, and Denver, Colorado. These experiments, which are sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) under its Service and Methods Demonstration Program, are the first free-fare programs of such size and comprehensiveness. The demonstrations have already provided a number of interesting, if still tentative, conclusions. The first major conclusion is that, while free fare induces large and sustainable ridership gains (19 percent in Trenton and 34 percent in Denver), the general aggregate behavior of the population in making their modal choices is not significantly different from what it would be with any other absolute change of an equal amount. The price elasticity of demand for transit implied by the Trenton results was -0.42, which is virtually identical to the transit industry's experience. Saturday evening youth riders and walk trips made up fully 7 percent of the ridership in the free-fare system in Trenton. The demonstration appears to have reduced the peak-load capacity requirements in Trenton's transit system and caused a dramatic shift from the peak to the off-peak. The most surprising finding was that complaints of rowdiness, vandalism, and other incidents increased at both sites to such an extent that some groups called for the abandonment of the experiments.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appeared in TRB Research Record No. 719, Transit Development.
    TRT Terms: Demonstration projects; Elasticity (Mechanics); Federal assistance programs; Federal government; Free fares; Off peak periods; Prices; Public transit; Traffic; Transportation planning; Travel demand; Urban transportation
    Other Terms: Elasticity; Federal programs; Free transportation; Off-peak traffic; Urban transportation planning
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Order Number: DOTL JC
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: ELASTICITY MEASURES OF BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO OFF-PEAK FREE-FARE TRANSIT
    Accession No: 00331050
    Authors:
  • Doxsey, L
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 761
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19800000
    Description: p. 7-14; Figures(1); References(2); Tables(2)
    Abstract: Changes in transit ridership behavior in response to the elimination of off-peak transit fares are examined. Empirically, the analysis is based on data collected for a one-year free-fare demonstration sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration in Trenton, New Jersey. Fare elasticity of demand is used as the measure of behavioral response. Important to the analysis is the clarification of distinctions among different measures of fare elasticity. In order to both illustrate the differences among types of elasticity and demonstrate the separate impact attributable to the choice of estimating technique, several techniques are applied and their results compared. It is concluded that the demand response to fare elimination is inelastic and that variations among individuals in the extent of response cannot be associated with differences in socioeconomic characteristics. Free fare is therefore judged not to be a direct means of fulfilling the transportation needs of socio-economically defined population groups. (Author)
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record No. 761, Public Transportation Planning.
    TRT Terms: Demonstration projects; Elasticity (Mechanics); Fares; Free fares; Off peak periods; Public transit; Ridership; Socioeconomic factors
    Other Terms: Elasticity; Free transportation; Off-peak; Response; Socioeconomic aspects
    Subject Areas: I10 Economics and administration; U25 FARES & PRICING; H13 FORECASTING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Order Number: DOTL JC
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FARE-FREE PUBLIC TRANSIT POTENTIAL IN ATHENS, GREECE
    Accession No: 00334585
    Authors:
  • GIANNOPOULOS, G A
  • Journal Title:
  • Traffic Quarterly Vol. 34 No. 2
    Publisher: Eno Transportation Foundation
    ISSN: 0041-0713
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Eno Transportation Foundation
    1634 I Street, NW, Suite 500
    Washington, DC 20006 USA
  • Publication Date: 19800400
    Description: p. 313-327; References(3)
    Abstract: This paper draws on a study conducted in Athens, Greece to examine the application potential and possible effects of fare-free public transit in the greater Athens area. Principal objectives of the study were to determine an equitable method of distributing costs to area households, and to determine how well a fare-free system and its method of local financial support would be accepted by the citizenry.
    TRT Terms: City planning; Costs; Financing; Free fares; Public transit; Socioeconomic factors; Transportation; Transportation planning; Urban transportation
    Other Terms: Athens, greece; Free transportation; Socioeconomic aspects; Urban planning; Urban transportation planning
    Subject Areas: I10 Economics and administration; U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS; I72 Traffic and transport planning
    Availability:
  • Eno Transportation Foundation
    1634 I Street, NW, Suite 500
    Washington, DC 20006 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE-FARE TRANSIT: SOME EMPIRICAL FINDINGS. ABRIDGMENT
    Accession No: 00341810
    Authors:
  • Doxsey, L B
  • Spear, B D
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 799
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19810000
    Description: p. 47-49; Figures(1); References(6)
    Abstract: This paper presents comparative results from two free transit demonstrations funded by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration. In Denver and Trenton, one-year experiments with off-peak free transit began early in 1977. The analysis here is based on survey and ridership-count data collected as part of the demonstration evaluation process. Aggregate ridership increases of about 50 percent were observed at both sites following the elimination of fares. The majority of the additional trips would have otherwise been made by non-bus modes, though roughly 15-25 percent would not have been made at all without free fare. Transit-dependent groups, including the elderly, the poor, and the carless, were less responsive to fare elimination than were nondependent groups. Neither demonstration had a measurable impact on automobile use. At both sites increased ridership led to modest and generally localized deteriorations in service quality. (Author)
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record No. 799, Transit Fare Policies.
    TRT Terms: Aged; Automobile travel; Bus transit; Demonstration projects; Free fares; Low income groups; Off peak periods; Ridership
    Other Terms: Automobile use; Bus services; Economically disadvantaged persons; Elderly; Free transportation; Increase; Off-peak
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; I72 Traffic and transport planning
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: CBD FARE-FREE TRANSIT SERVICE IN ALBANY, NEW YORK
    Accession No: 00364995
    Authors:
  • Atherton, T J
  • Eder, E S
  • Period Covered: 7811-8011
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Cambridge Systematics, Incorporated
    238 Main Street
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Transportation Systems Center
    55 Broadway, Kendall Square
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Publication Date: 19811200
    Description: 178 p.
    Abstract: The report presents an evaluation of the impacts associated with the implementation of fare-free transit service in the Central Business District (CBD) of Albany, New York. The Albany demonstration began in November 1978; fares were eliminated for trips within the two-thirds square mile fare-free zone during off-peak hours on weekdays and from 9 AM to 5 PM on Saturdays. The local objectives for this evaluation were: revitalization of the downtown areas; reduced traffic congestion; increased fare-paying patronage; and improve public image of public transportation. Data collection involved surveys administered to population groups that included: bus patrons traveling within the CBD; downtown employees and residents; and areawide residents.
    TRT Terms: Central business districts; Evaluation; Free fares; Impact studies; Public transit; Ridership; Surveys; Traffic congestion; Travel; Urban renewal; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Albany (New York); New York; New York (State)
    Other Terms: Central city; Free transportation
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; I72 Traffic and transport planning
    Contract Number: DOT-TSC-1405
    Report Number: UMTA-NY-06-0064-81-1Final Rpt.
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB82-185034
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Source Data: u8214
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: OFF-PEAK FARE-FREE TRANSIT: MERCER COUNTY, NEW JERSEY
    Accession No: 00365273
    Authors:
  • Connor, D L
  • Period Covered: 771000-8003
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • De Leuw, Cather and Company
    165 West Wacker Drive
    Chicago, IL 60601 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Transportation Systems Center
    55 Broadway, Kendall Square
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Publication Date: 19820300
    Description: 181 p.
    Abstract: The evaluation was designed to explore the effects of the fare elimination on the transit operator, the riding public, the general populace, and the local business community. Evaluation issues were concerned with impacts on ridership volumes, passenger characteristics, transit operations, public awareness and attitudes, effects on commercial activities, and public response to the fare elimination. The conclusion reached by the evaluators of the demonstration was that free-fare is probably more valuable as a tool for transit promotion than as a full-time transit pricing strategy. This report contains a bibliography and charts related to data collection, ridership and trip-making.
    TRT Terms: Attitudes; Bus transportation; Economic analysis; Evaluation; Free fares; Marketing; Off peak periods; Pricing; Ridership; Travel demand; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    New Jersey
    Other Terms: Free transportation; Off-peak
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; I72 Traffic and transport planning
    Contract Number: DOT-TSC-1409
    Report Number: UMTA-MA-06-0049-80-3Final Rpt.
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB82-207119
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Source Data: u8219
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: IMPACTS OF CBD FARE-FREE TRANSIT ON RETAIL SALES
    Accession No: 00369109
    Authors:
  • Atherton, T J
  • Eder, E S
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 861
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19820000
    Description: p. 16-23; Figures(5); Tables(2)
    Abstract: Results of an analysis of changes in central business district (CBD) retail sales associated with the implementation of fare-free transit service in downtown Albany, New York, are presented. The analysis reported here was performed in conjunction with a broader evaluation effort under the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Service and Methods Demonstration Program. In addition to examining changes in aggregate CBD retail sales, changes in sales by type of retail establishment and location relative to major bus lines were also considered. Results are based on a time-series analysis of retail sales tax receipts provided by the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance for a panel of 115 CBD retail establishments. In addition, total retail CBD retail establishments. In addition, total retail for the CBD panel. The analysis results suggest that CBD fare-free service has had a positive impact on sales among downtown merchants, primarily during the first quarters (December 1 through February 28), which correspond to holiday shopping seasons, and among miscellaneous sales establishments (i.e., specialty and gift shops). Also, retail establishments located in close proximity to major bus routes appear to have benefited most from the implementation of fare-free service.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record No. 861, Transportation and Land Use Impacts on Major Activity Centers.
    TRT Terms: Bus transit; Central business districts; Free fares; Retail trade; Ridership; Sales
    Geographical
    Terms:
    New York (State)
    Other Terms: Bus services; Retail sales
    Subject Areas: I10 Economics and administration; U25 FARES & PRICING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS; H16 USER NEEDS
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Order Number: DOTL JC
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: RIDERSHIP VERIFICATION STUDY FOR THE PENNSYLVANIA FREE TRANSIT PROGRAM FOR SENIOR CITIZENS
    Accession No: 00377051
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Charles River Associates, Incorporated
    200 Clarendon Street, John Hancock Tower
    Boston, MA 02116 USA
  • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
    Mass Transit Assistance Division
    Harrisburg, PA 17120 USA
  • Publication Date: 19820500
    Description: 108 p.; Appendices(4); Figures; Tables
    Abstract: This handbook describes the ridership counting and reporting procedures employed by small private operators and larger public systems as the basis for reimbursement under Pennsylvania DOT's program for providing senior citizens with fare-free transportation during off-peak hours. It also prescribes improved counting and reporting procedures, including uniform reporting methods, ridership counters, and standardized procedures for calculating average fares. Technical guidelines are identified for carrying out ridership surveys and evaluating the accuracy of data collected. A statistically valid interval to be used to assess the validity of daily ridership counts is described.
    TRT Terms: Aged; Data collection; Free fares; Handbooks; Off peak periods; Passenger counting; Ridership; Subsidies
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Pennsylvania
    Other Terms: Elderly; Fare free transportation; Off-peak
    Subject Areas: U24 PRODUCTIVITY & EFFICIENCY
    Report Number: UMTA-PA-09-8004 Final Rpt.; CRA 588; TTS-17
    Availability:
  • Charles River Associates, Incorporated
    200 Clarendon Street, John Hancock Tower
    Boston, MA 02116 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: EVALUATION OF THE DENVER RTD OFF-PEAK FREE FARE TRANSIT DEMONSTRATION
    Accession No: 00381024
    Authors:
  • Donnelly, R M
  • Ong, P M
  • Gelb, P M
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • De Leuw, Cather and Company
    120 Howard Street
    San Francisco, CA 94120 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19800300
    Description: 215 p.
    Abstract: This report presents findings of the evaluation of the Denver Colorado Regional Transit District's systemwide off-peak free fare transit demonstration. The demonstration began on February 1, 1978, and continued for 12 months, ending on January 31, 1979. The Denver RTD eliminated the 25 cent off-peak fare and retained a 50 cent peak hour fare for bus boardings for two hours during the morning rush hours and for two hours in the evening rush hours. This experiment in innovative transit pricing continued for one year as a Federally assisted demonstration project to determine the effects of free off-peak transit in a major urban area. This report summarizes the evaluation of the Denver experiment with respect to the implementation requirements of no fare off-peak bus service and its effects on: 1) travel behavior and transit's share of metropolitan tripmaking; 2) quality of bus service; 3) transit costs and revenues; and 4) indirect effects on the environment, energy consumption, and public support for transit. The extensive data collection activities conducted by RTD as part of the demonstration, including transit operations monitoring, surveys of transit users on-board and follow-up telephone, and general population surveys, are documented and their results analyzed. Principal findings of the evaluation are reported and their implications for transit pricing and service planning are discussed. The principal conclusion of this evaluation is that free fare transit may be a more effective short-term marketing instrument than a desirable permanent element of transportation policy for metropolitan areas. Reduced or low fare off-peak transit may achieve many of the same beneficial objectives of no fares, but complete removal of the fare barrier Appears to generate enough undesirable side effects to undermine its overall effectiveness.
    TRT Terms: Bus transit; Fares; Free fares; Mode choice; Off peak periods; Pricing; Quality of service; Ridership
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Denver (Colorado)
    Other Terms: Bus services; Fare free; Modal choice; Off-peak
    Subject Areas: H11 ADMINISTRATION; U25 FARES & PRICING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS; H16 USER NEEDS
    Contract Number: 1409-15B
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB83-250795
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: TRANSIT FARE AND RIDERSHIP: A REVIEW
    Accession No: 00082824
    Authors:
  • Difiglio, C
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility
    1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
    Washington, DC 20036 USA
  • Publication Date: 19741200
    Description: 26 p.
    Abstract: One of the most frequently mentioned approaches to increase transit ridership is lowered or free transit fares. However, the proportional increase in ridership resulting from a given reduction in fare is estimated to be small. Several statistical studies support the finding that the fare elasticity of transit demand is low, while simultaneously demonstrating that the sensitivity of transit demand to service improvements is relatively high. There exist few studies which bridge these two findings with cost data to reach a definite conclusion, but the evidence currently available strongly supports the policy of spending transit funds to improve transit service rather than to reduce transit fares. 26 references. /Author/
    TRT Terms: Costs; Demand; Fares; Free fares; Public transit; Ridership; Statistical analysis
    Other Terms: Cost data; Free transportation
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE-FARE TRANSIT MEANS EASY MOBILITY AND LESS CONGESTION IN VAIL, COLORADO
    Accession No: 00473204
    Journal Title:
  • Bus Ride Vol. 23 No. 2
    Publisher: Friendship Publications, Incorporated
    ISSN: 0192-8902 OCLC: 3064294
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Friendship Publications, Incorporated
    West 2627 Providence, P.O. Box 1472
    Spokane, WA 99210-1472 USA
  • Friendship Publications, Incorporated
    1550 E. Missouri Avenue, Suite 100
    Phoenix, AZ 85014-2455 USA
  • Publication Date: 19870400
    Description: p. 56-58; Photos(7)
    Abstract: No Abstract.
    TRT Terms: Bus transportation; Free fares; Mobility; Ridership; Sales tax; Traffic congestion
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Vail (Colorado)
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING
    Availability:
  • Friendship Publications, Incorporated
    West 2627 Providence, P.O. Box 1472
    Spokane, WA 99210-1472 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: NO PAY MAY: PROJECT DESCRIPTION, ANALYSIS OF RIDERSHIP DATA, AND SURVEY RESULTS
    Accession No: 00480696
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Kansas Corporation Commission
    , KS USA
  • Topeka Metropolitan Transit Authority
    3258 South Topeka Boulevard
    Topeka, KS 66611 USA
  • Publication Date: 19880900
    Description: 50 p.
    Abstract: This 50 page report describes the planning, implementation, and impacts of an innovative marketing project undertaken by the Topeka (KS) Metropolitan Transit Authority. Oil overcharge funds were used to pay for a month of fare-free transit service during May 1988. Ridership almost doubled during the promotion, and a permanent ridership increase held when fares were charged again. One particular highlight of the document is a straightforward technique to estimate the energy impacts of marketing programs. The report should be especially interesting to the managers of small to medium size transit systems.
    TRT Terms: Free fares; Implementation; Innovation; Marketing; Promotion; Ridership
    Other Terms: Promotion programs
    Subject Areas: U28 MARKETING
    Report Number: DOT-T-89-04
    Availability:
  • Office of the Secretary of Transportation
    Technology Sharing Program, 400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE PUBLIC TRANSPORT FOR ALL?
    Accession No: 00580012
    Authors:
  • Philipson, M
  • Willis, D
  • Conference Title:
  • AUSTRALASIAN TRANSPORT RESEARCH FORUM FORUM
  • Publication Date: 19900000
    Description: p. 623-640
    Languages: English
    Abstract: EXAMINES THE ARGUMENTS FOR FREE PUBLIC TRANSIT AND DISCUSSES LIKELY IMPACTS WITH REFERENCE TO SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND ADELAIDE
    Supplemental
    Information:
    MIKE PHILLIPSON, DAVID WILLIS ILLUSTRATED INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES P. 639-640
    TRT Terms: Fares; Public transit
    Other Terms: Local transit
    Availability:
  • Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery
  • Document Source:
  • UC Berkeley Transportation Library
  • Source Data: 25226216
    TRIS Files: TLIB
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FARE-FREE POLICY: COSTS, IMPACTS ON TRANSIT SERVICE, AND ATTAINMENT OF TRANSIT SYSTEM GOALS. FINAL REPORT
    Accession No: 00647381
    Authors:
  • Hodge, D C
  • Orrell, J D
  • Strauss, T R
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Washington State Transportation Center
    University of Washington, 1107 NE 45th Street, Suite 535
    Seattle, WA 98105 USA
  • Washington State Department of Transportation
    Transportation Building, 212 Maple Park
    Olympia, WA 98504-7300 USA
  • Federal Highway Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19940300
    Description: 52 p.; Figures(3); References(30); Tables(5)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: This study sought to understand the potential and problems associated with fare-free transit policy. Washington state is extraordinary in the number of such systems that are fully fare-free. Experiences with fare-free policy in Washington are overwhelmingly positive; a result that is consistent with other completely fare-free systems in the U.S. identified in this research. We conclude that fare-free policy does make a difference and that smaller communities especially are better served by a fare-free policy. This positive review of fare-free policy conflicts with common thinking about the policy within the transit industry. We conclude that much of the negative interpretation of the policy is based on a very limited set of experiments with the policy at larger systems. This research points out why these experiments should not be used to dismiss the policy and why the policy's potential success is largely dependent upon transit agency management issues. Furthermore, we present a conceptual overview of why the removal of the fare box results in substantial ridership increases above the levels predicted using standard fare elasticity relationships. This conceptual overview of the relationship between fare-free policy and ridership levels is also suggested as a helpful tool for interpreting the value of increased ridership in juxtaposition to the different objectives of public transportation.
    TRT Terms: Costs; Free fares; Impacts; Public transit; Recommendations; Ridership; Strategic planning; Transportation policy
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Washington (State)
    Other Terms: Goals; Transit services
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING
    Contract Number: T9233, Task 26
    Report Number: WA-RD 277.1
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: SMALL CITY TRANSIT: AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS FREE FARE, STUDENT OPERATED TRANSIT IN A UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY
    Accession No: 00133207
    Authors:
  • Casey, R
  • Michener, W
  • Period Covered: 750400-7603
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Systems Center
    55 Broadway, Kendall Square
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    Office of Service & Method Demonstration, 400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19760300
    Description: 20 p.
    Abstract: Amherst, Massachusetts, is an illustration of a free-fare transit service serving a university campus. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed along with a description of the implementation process and operational characteristics of the transit service. The process through which the community responds to the specific needs for transit service within the local context is stressed.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    See also PB-251 503.
    TRT Terms: City planning; Communities; Free fares; Local government; Public transit; Small cities; Students; Technical assistance; Transportation; Transportation operations; Travel demand; Universities and colleges; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Massachusetts
    Other Terms: Community development; Free transportation; Transportation management; Transportation systems; Universities
    Subject Areas: U31 CONVENTIONAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES; H12 PLANNING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    Contract Number: MA-06-0049
    Report Number: DOT-TSC-UMTA-76-5-2 Final Rpt.; UMTA-MA-06-0049-76-2
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-251502/1ST
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Source Data: u7612
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: SMALL CITY TRANSIT: EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA. FREE-FARE TRANSIT IN A HIGH DENSITY, INDUSTRIALIZED AREA
    Accession No: 00133211
    Authors:
  • Misner, J
  • Period Covered: 750400-7603
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Systems Center
    55 Broadway, Kendall Square
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    Office of Service & Method Demonstration, 400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19760300
    Description: 12 p.
    Abstract: East Chicago, Indiana, is an illustration of a free-fare transit service operating in a high density area. The transit service was devised with a minimum of help from professional consultants, and without sophisticated routing, scheduling, or marketing plans. This case study is one of thirteen examples of a transit service in a small community. The background of the community is discussed along with a description of the implementation process and operational characteristics of the transit service. The process through which the community responds to the specific needs for transit service within the local content is stressed.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    See also PB-251 507.
    TRT Terms: Buses; Communities; Federal assistance programs; Free fares; Industrial areas; Industrial buildings; Public transit; Routes; Small cities; Technical assistance; Transportation operations; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Indiana
    Other Terms: Buses vehicles; Free transportation; Transportation management
    Subject Areas: U31 CONVENTIONAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES; U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    Contract Number: MA-06-0049
    Report Number: DOT-TSC-UMTA-76-5-6 Final Rpt.; UMTA-MA-06-0049-76-6
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-251506/2ST
    Document Source:
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    Office of Transit Management
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Source Data: u7612
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: "FRACTURE AND SEAT" RESTORES PCC PAVEMENTS
    Accession No: 00721216
    Journal Title:
  • Public Works Vol. 127 No. 4
    Publisher: Public Works Journal Corporation
    ISSN: 0033-3840 OCLC: 1606878
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Public Works Journal Corporation
    200 South Broad Street
    Ridgewood, NJ 07451 USA
  • Publication Date: 19960400
    Description: p. 36-38
    Languages: English
    Abstract: The use of hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlays presents a long term, economical way to rehabilitate PCC (portland cement concrete) pavements. If, however, HMA overlays are placed directly over an existing worn PCC pavement, the resulting system is likely to develop reflection cracking. Such cracking, which "reflects" upward through the HMA, is caused by horizontal and vertical movement within the underlying PCC layer. To stop reflection cracking, a public works agency can fracture the slab before placing the HMA overlay. Such fracturing reduces the effective length of the PCC pavement and prevents excessive stresses from developing in the HMA overlay. In recent years, fracture-and-seat projects have met with success in many states, including Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, New Mexico, Michigan, Virginia, Iowa, and Minnesota.
    TRT Terms: Hot mix paving mixtures; Pavement cracking; Portland cement concrete; Reflection cracking
    Other Terms: Hot mix asphalt; Restoration
    Subject Areas: H32 CEMENT AND CONCRETE; I22 Pavement design; H24 PAVEMENT DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE
    Availability:
  • Public Works Journal Corporation
    200 South Broad Street
    Ridgewood, NJ 07451 USA
  • TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: LOW FARE AND FARE-FREE TRANSIT; SOME RECENT APPLICATIONS BY U.S. TRANSIT SYSTEMS
    Accession No: 00164023
    Authors:
  • Goodman, K M
  • Green, M A
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Urban Institute
    2100 M Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20037 USA
  • Publication Date: 19770200
    Description: 156 p.; Appendices(1); References; Tables(5)
    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document describing succinct case studies of the experience accrued by more than 40 U.S. transit systems which have introduced fare-free of reduced-fare services of one form or another in recent years. The report is a useful reference document for decision makers contemplating similar pricing policies as well as a preliminary planning guide to the UMTA for the development of demonstration programs to evaluate various transit pricing and service strategies. Many different types of fare reductions were identified. They are classified into five broad divisions: (a) systemwide fare reductions without any restrictions; (b) fare reductions applicable to specific geographical areas only--typically the CBD; (c) fare reductions which are operable only during limited hours--typically the off-peak hours; (d) fare reductions subject to both geographical and time-of-day restrictions; and (e) fare reductions of short duration implemented chiefly for promotional purposes. When viewed from the limited perspective of financial aspects of transit system operations it does not appear that fare reductions alone have had a favorable impact on the overall economic conditions of transit systems.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Prepared for the Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration.
    TRT Terms: Bridge members; Demonstration projects; Economics; Fares; Free fares; Marketing; Off peak periods; Traffic; Transportation; Transportation planning; Urban transportation
    Other Terms: Bridge elements; Free transportation; Off-peak traffic; Transportation economics; Urban transportation planning
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    Contract Number: DC-52-0002
    Report Number: UMTA-DC-52-0002-77-1
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-271077/0ST
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FARE-FREE TRANSIT ANALYSIS FOR CHICO, CA.
    Accession No: 00886482
    Authors:
  • THOMPSON, MATTHEW
  • GIBBY, REED
  • FERRARA, THOMAS
  • Conference Title:
  • 1998 COMPENDIUM OF TECHNICAL PAPERS
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS. DISTRICT 6. MEETING (51ST: 1998 : SAN DIEGO, CALIF.)
  • Publication Date: 19980000
    Languages: English
    Abstract: No abstract provided.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    P. 21-26; INCLUDES BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES (P. 26) 1998 COMPENDIUM OF TECHNICAL PAPERS. WASHINGTON, D.C.: INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS, 1998
    TRT Terms: Bus lines; Fares; Public transit
    Other Terms: Chico; Local transit
    Availability:
  • Available from UC Berkeley Transportation Library through interlibrary loan or document delivery
  • Document Source:
  • UC Berkeley Transportation Library
  • TRIS Files: TLIB
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: REDUCED FARE AND FARE-FREE URBAN TRANSIT SERVICES--SOME CASE STUDIES
    Accession No: 00148724
    Authors:
  • Kemp, M A
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Urban Institute
    2100 M Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20037 USA
  • Publication Date: 19740700
    Description: 37 p.
    Abstract: This paper present case studies of the effects of low-fare and fare-free policies adopted in several American and European cities. There is a general introduction to the concept of travel demand elasticities, and it is pointed out that because the elasticity with respect to fare is usually small, any reduction in fares will lead to loss of gross revenues and small ridership increases. Elasticity with respect to level of service offered is generally higher, and service improvements may have a relatively greater effect on patronage. /GMRL/
    TRT Terms: Elasticity (Mechanics); Fares; Free fares; Level of service; Ridership; Travel demand; Urban areas
    Other Terms: Elasticity; Fare reduction; Free transportation
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    Report Number: Paper No. 1212-3
    Document Source:
    Source Data: GMRL 74-1526
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FARE-FREE TRANSIT POLICY
    Accession No: 00944023
    Authors:
  • Perone, J S
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • National Center for Transit Research
    CUTR, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue
    Tampa, FL 33620 USA
  • Florida Department of Transportation
    Haydon Burns Building, 605 Suwanee Street
    Tallahassee, FL 32301 USA
  • Research and Special Programs Administration
    Department of Transportation, 400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 20021000
    Description: 28 p.; References
    Languages: English
    Abstract: This synthesis of fare free demonstrations offers information as to the impact, cost, advantages, and disadvantages of fare free implementation of various transit systems. The main thrust of this synthesis is that fare free policy can be recommended for smaller transit systems, it is questionable as to whether fare free implementation would be appropriate for larger systems. There are consequences to any operational transit policy, and those who make decisions about whether to offer fare free transit would be a negative or positive experience in any given transit system environment. This report presents both the advantages and disadvantages of fare free service in differing transit system environments within the framework of several policy questions and is meant to serve as a guide for those considering whether to implement fare free policy within a specific transit system.
    TRT Terms: Elasticity (Economics); Fares; Public transit; Ridership; Transportation policy
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; U42 TRANSIT PLANNING, POLICY, & PROGRAMS
    Contract Number: DTRS98-G-00329
    Report Number: NCTR-473-133
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • URLs:
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF FARE-FREE TRANSIT PROGRAM ON STUDENT COMMUTING MODE SHARES: BRUINGO AT UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES
    Accession No: 00965440
    Authors:
  • Boyd, B
  • Chow, M
  • JOHNSON, R
  • Smith, A
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 1835
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 20030000
    Description: p. 101-110; Figures(8); References(4); Tables(4)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: Spring 2002 concluded the second year of the BruinGo pilot demonstration program of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). BruinGo allows students and employees of UCLA to board buses of the Santa Monica Municipal Bus Lines (Big Blue Bus) free of charge. At a time when the future of BruinGo is at stake (both its existence and the possible expansion of the program to other transit agencies), a brief analysis of what has been accomplished by the program at this stage is provided. The program is analyzed using two methods: (a) the analysis of the changes in the commuting mode share for all off-campus student commuters and (b) an intricate process of geocoding survey data in which the relationship of the proximity of a student's residence to the Big Blue Bus lines and the corresponding choice of mode to campus is analyzed. The conclusion is that providing fare-free transit to students did, in fact, increase transit ridership and decrease students' reliance on the automobile to reach campus. Transit ridership for 2001 (the first year of BruinGo) increased by more than 50% over ridership in 2000 (the year before BruinGo), while more than 1,000 fewer automobile trips were taken to the UCLA campus each day. Even more striking is the rate at which students are leaving their cars at home in the areas best served by the Big Blue Bus. After BruinGo, fully 50% of all students in walking distance of a direct line to campus took transit (compared with 35% before BruinGo). That is much higher than in other areas. The mode share of walking and bicycling also decreased dramatically, however.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1835, Transit: Planning and Development, Management and Performance, Marketing and Fare Policy, and Intermodal Transfer Facilities.
    TRT Terms: Before and after studies; Bicycling; Bus transit; College students; Demonstration projects; Employees; Free fares; Modal split; Mode choice; Ridership; Travel surveys; Walking
    Identifier Terms: University of California, Los Angeles
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING; U42 TRANSIT PLANNING, POLICY, & PROGRAMS
    ISBN: 0309085691
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: EXTERNALITIES BY AUTOMOBILES AND FARE-FREE TRANSIT IN GERMANY - A PARADIGM SHIFT?
    Accession No: 00966853
    Authors:
  • Storchmann, K
  • Journal Title:
  • Journal of Public Transportation Vol. 6 No. 4
    Publisher: Center for Urban Transportation Research
    ISSN: 1077-291X OCLC: 30755822
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Center for Urban Transportation Research
    University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue
    Tampa, FL 33620-5350 USA
  • Center for Urban Transportation Research
    University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue
    Tampa, FL 33620-5350 USA
  • Publication Date: 20030000
    Description: p. 89-105; References; Tables(4)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: To mitigate automobile caused externalities, several European cities have introduced fare-free transit schemes. Best known are the plans introduced in Hasselt, Belgium, and Templin, Germany. The staggering increases in ridership in both cities seem to prove the overwhelming success of this policy. In addition, a study carried out for the German Federal Ministry of Transportation scrutinized the program in Templin and found that a positive net effect is likely and fare-free transit is a viable policy to curb automobile externalities. Fare-free schemes are based on the economic theory of the second-best. Automobile users should be encouraged to shift to environmentally friendly transit. An undesired side effect, however, may be the increase in the demand by former transit users and the attraction of pedestrians and bicycle riders. In Templin, the side effect was prevailing, whereas the shift from automobile to transit was only minimal. The positive net benefit was due to the reduction in fatalities and casualties. Since pedestrians and bicycle riders belong to the most endangered road users, every decrease in these modes will lead to a reduction of automobile-caused costs. The undesired side effect thus became the main effect.
    TRT Terms: Automobile travel; Bicycle travel; Fares; Free fares; Pedestrians; Public transit; Ridership; Safety
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Hasselt (Belgium); Templin (Germany)
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING; U42 TRANSIT PLANNING, POLICY, & PROGRAMS
    Availability:
  • Center for Urban Transportation Research
    University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue
    Tampa, FL 33620-5350 USA
  • URLs:
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FARE-FREE PUBLIC TRANSIT AT UNIVERSITIES: AN EVALUATION
    Accession No: 00969324
    Authors:
  • BROWN, J
  • Hess, D B
  • Shoup, D
  • Journal Title:
  • Journal of Planning Education and Research Vol. 23 No. 1
    Publisher: University of Cincinnati
    ISSN: 0739-456X
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Sage Publications, Incorporated
    275 South Beverly Drive
    Beverly Hills, CA 90212 USA
  • University of Cincinnati
    Department of Planning
    Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA
  • Publication Date: 20030000
    Description: p. 69-82
    Languages: English
    Abstract: The paper discusses a program created together by universities and public transit agencies in the United States to provide fare-free transit service for all students, and on some campuses, faculty and staff. The program, called Unlimited Access, is not free transit, but a new way to pay for it: the university pays the transit agency for all rides taken by eligible members of the school community. This paper evaluates the program at the University of California, Los Angeles. The results show that bus ridership for commuting to campus increased by 56% during the program's first year, and single person driving fell by 20%. Based on such startling results in a city like Los Angeles, famous for its love of cars, United Access can be expected to be a success almost anywhere.
    TRT Terms: Bus transit; Commuting; Free fares; Public transit; Ridership; Students; Universities and colleges
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Los Angeles (California)
    Other Terms: Unlimited Access
    Subject Areas: U32 PARATRANSIT SYSTEMS & SERVICES
    Availability:
  • Sage Publications, Incorporated
    275 South Beverly Drive
    Beverly Hills, CA 90212 USA
  • URLs:
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: TRANSPORTATION PRICING PROGRAM OF THE URBAN MASS TRANSPORTATION ADMINISTRATION
    Accession No: 00176476
    Authors:
  • Arrillaga, B
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 181
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0360-859X
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19780000
    Description: p. 13-15
    Abstract: This program seeks to reduce severe traffic congestion in urban areas and to improve the environment by encouraging use of the public transportation system. The program promotes pricing strategies that directly improve the performance of the public transport system, i.e., speed, productivity, or reliability, and uses disincentives that discourage the use of low-occupancy modes of travel. Two general categories of demonstrations are being considered for implementation. The first, which consists of pricing measures that will discourage the use of low-occupancy vehicles, involves a supplementary license scheme that is used to charge low-occupancy vehicles for driving in highly congested areas. In the second category, pricing strategies are used as a means to achieve positive rider attitude and support toward the public transportation system, and to increase ridership and productivity. Included are demonstrations to investigate the major transit pricing issues ranging from pricing of various transit services for different user groups and mechanisms for prepayment of fares to the complete elimination of fares. Comments are made on the following demonstrations: fare-free transit, prepaid pass, congestion pricing, and demonstrations of price and service variations. UMTA plans to expand the congestion pricing effort and evaluate other alternatives. The question of parking charges will be reviewed, and an investigation will be made into corridor and spot pricing to deal with specific types of congestion problems.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appeared in Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 181, Urban Transportation Economics. It contains proceedings of Five Workshops on Pricing Alternatives, Economic Regulations, Labor Issues, Marketing, and Government Financing Responsibilities held by Transportation Research Board. Sponsored by Office of the Secretary, Federal Highway Administration, and Urban Mass Transportation Administration of DOT; Environmental Protection Agency; and Federal Energy Administration.
    TRT Terms: Administration; Demonstration projects; Economics; Fares; Free fares; Incentives; Licenses; Pay parking; Prices; Public transit; Ridership; Traffic congestion; Transportation; Urban transportation; Vehicle occupancy
    Other Terms: Demonstration; Free transportation; Parking costs; Transportation economics; Urban transportation administration
    Subject Areas: H15 SOCIOECONOMICS; U43 TRANSIT FINANCING
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: THE EFFECT OF 100% TRANSIT SUBSIDY ON CHANGING MODE SHARE AMONG EMPLOYEES IN THE LONGWOOD MEDICAL AND ACADEMIC AREA BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
    Accession No: 00983146
    Authors:
  • Gray, D
  • Strauss, D
  • Conference Title:
  • ACT 2000 International Conference: Imagine the Possibilities
    Date Held: 20000917 - 20000920
    Orlando, Florida
    Sponsoring Agency:
    Florida Department of Transportation; The Walt Disney Company; URS; Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS); Georgia Power Company; Kaiser Permanente; VPSI Commuter Vanpools; and National Center for Transit Research
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Association for Commuter Transportation
    1518 K Street, NW, Suite 503
    Washington, DC 20005 USA
  • Publication Date: 20000000
    Description: 14p; Tables(2)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: In January 2000, CommuteWorks/MASCO began a program called "Three for Free". A 100% Transit Subsidy Program, it is designed to reduce the number of drive-alone commuters traveling into the Longwood Medical and Academic Area (LMA) and the congestion emissions they produce, by providing employees with a 100% transit pass subsidy (up to $65 per month)1 for three months. "Three for Free" has proven to be an excellent way of achieving real results and has contributed solid data to research in the field of Transportation Demand Management. "Three for Free" has been very successful and has provided CommuteWorks/MASCO with valuable information about how effective a 100% transit subsidy can be in switching drive-alone commuters to public transit. CommuteWorks/MASCO will use this information to educate member institutions and other businesses about the effects of an increased transit subsidy with benefits including employee savings, commuting costs, parking costs, and regional air quality benefits.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Full conference proceedings available on CD-ROM.
    TRT Terms: Commuters; Employer sponsored transportation; Management; Mobility; Public transit; Ridesharing; Subsidies; Transportation planning; Travel demand
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Boston (Massachusetts)
    Subject Areas: H54 OPERATIONS AND TRAFFIC CONTROL; I72 Traffic and transport planning; H55 TRAFFIC FLOW, CAPACITY AND MEASUREMENTS; U42 TRANSIT PLANNING, POLICY, & PROGRAMS
    Availability:
  • Association for Commuter Transportation
    1518 K Street, NW, Suite 503
    Washington, DC 20005 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: REGIONAL TRANSIT PROGRAM FOR WELFARE TO WORK IN CHICAGO, ILLINOIS: THREE YEARS LATER
    Accession No: 00983381
    Authors:
  • Hunt, K L
  • Czerwinski, J
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 1887
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 20040000
    Description: p. 3-9; Figures(3); References(16); Tables(7)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: The impact of the welfare-to-work (WtW) regional public transportation program on participants in Chicago, Illinois, is reviewed 3 years after an initial study. The regional transportation program provided free transit passes and vanpool services to participants during their first 6 months of employment and training on regional transit options for job developers. WtW participants' travel patterns were noted, social service contractors were interviewed, and Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) clients were examined. In 2000, pass use for WtW participants and regular 30-day pass users was determined to be almost identical because of the strong economy of the late 1990s. Three years later, travel patterns suggested that participants were beginning to find employment farther from home, many in the job-rich O'Hare Airport corridor, and that the costs and benefits of sending low-income workers to distant work locations needed to be assessed. Although providing fare subsidies that allow low-income workers to take advantage of existing infrastructure may be helpful, transportation solutions probably will not be enough to make a meaningful and sustained impact. The regional transportation program illustrates the need for holistic approaches to social policy. The disproportionate level of transit dependency, longer travel times, and significantly higher use of public transit in many of the Chicago communities that have the highest numbers of TANF clients than in the city as a whole point to a serious need for affordable housing near job centers in the Chicago region.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1887, Transit: Planning and Development, Management and Performance, Marketing and Fare Policy, and Capacity and Quality of Service.
    TRT Terms: Benefit cost analysis; Fares; Low income groups; Social service; Subsidies; Transportation policy; Travel patterns; Travel time; Welfare recipients
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Chicago (Illinois)
    Other Terms: Transit dependency; Welfare to work
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING; U42 TRANSIT PLANNING, POLICY, & PROGRAMS
    ISBN: 0309094828
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE TRANSIT FOR LOW-INCOME YOUTH: EXPERIENCE IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, CALIFORNIA
    Accession No: 00983398
    Authors:
  • McDonald, N
  • Librera, S
  • Deakin, E
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 1887
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 20040000
    Description: p. 153-160; Figures(3); References(10); Tables(2)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: In August 2002, AC Transit--the principal bus operator serving the eastern shore of the San Francisco Bay--began distributing free bus passes to low-income middle school and high school students in the transit service district. The program developed in response to grassroots community activism and growing political pressure to remove the burden of school transportation costs from low-income households. Advocates argued that school transportation costs were a barrier that prevented poor children from participating in after-school activities and, in severe cases, led to missed days of school. Funding for a pilot bus pass program was provided by the transit agency, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, local agencies, and several nonprofit organizations. The University of California, Berkeley, was funded to carry out an evaluation of the program during the first year of the program. Before-and-after travel and activity surveys, interviews, focus group meetings, and analysis of attendance data were used in the evaluation. Findings after 1 year of implementation indicate that the free bus pass program increased student bus ridership and after-school participation but did not increase overall school attendance. Increases in bus use were greater among pass holders, in areas with high levels of bus service, and among high school students.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appears in Transportation Research Record No. 1887, Transit: Planning and Development, Management and Performance, Marketing and Fare Policy, and Capacity and Quality of Service.
    TRT Terms: Before and after studies; Focus groups; Free fares; High school students; Interviewing; Low income groups; Pilot studies; Ridership
    Geographical
    Terms:
    San Francisco Bay Area
    Identifier Terms: Alameda Contra Costa Transit District
    Other Terms: Middle school students
    Subject Areas: U28 MARKETING; H12 PLANNING
    ISBN: 0309094828
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: TRAVELER RESPONSE TO TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM CHANGES. CHAPTER 12 - TRANSIT PRICING AND FARES
    Accession No: 00978503
    Authors:
  • McCollom, B E
  • Pratt, R H
  • Journal Title:
  • TCRP Report No. 95
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 1073-4872
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 20040000
    Description: 69 p.; References; Tables(33)
    Languages: English
    Abstract: This chapter addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. This chapter will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, select "TCRP, All Projects, B-12" from the TCRP website: http://www4.national-academies.org/trb/crp.nsf.
    TRT Terms: Bus transit; Fares; Free fares; Pricing; Public transit; Rail transit; Ridership; Urban areas
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    ISBN: 0309087635
    Report Number: Project B-12A FY '99
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • URLs:
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE TRANSIT FOR SENIOR CITIZENS IN PENNSYLVANIA
    Accession No: 00183030
    Authors:
  • Hoel, L A
  • Millar, W W
  • ROSZNER, E S
  • Journal Title:
  • Traffic Quarterly Vol. 31 No. 3
    Publisher: Eno Transportation Foundation
    ISSN: 0041-0713
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Eno Transportation Foundation
    1634 I Street, NW, Suite 500
    Washington, DC 20006 USA
  • Publication Date: 19770700
    Description: p. 497-514
    Abstract: On July 1, 1973, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania initiated a free transit program for senior citizens, representing the first commitment by any state to provide free public transportation for all older persons. With the voluntary cooperation of more than 70 private and public local transit carriers, serving more than 95 percent of all local-transit patronage in the state, the program provided an estimated 49 million free rides at a cost to the state of $10.8 million during its first year of operation. Funded by the state lottery, these costs are the amounts that the participating transit properties receive for the estimated transit losses incurred as a result of carrying senior citizens free of charge. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a research study to assess the impacts of this senior citizens' free-transit program. The results are significant to the commonwealth and to other states that may be considering this means of increasing the mobility of its elderly citizens. /GMRL/
    TRT Terms: Aged; Costs; Free fares; Impact studies; Mobility; Public transit; State government
    Other Terms: Elderly; Free transportation; Fund allocations
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    Availability:
  • Eno Transportation Foundation
    1634 I Street, NW, Suite 500
    Washington, DC 20006 USA
  • Document Source:
    Source Data: GMRL 77-216
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: EVALUATION OF PENNSYLVANIA'S FREE TRANSIT PROGRAM FOR SENIOR CITIZENS
    Accession No: 00184716
    Authors:
  • Millar, W W
  • Hoel, L A
  • ROSZNER, E S
  • Journal Title:
  • Transportation Research Record No. 660
    Publisher: Transportation Research Board
    ISSN: 0361-1981
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Transportation Research Board
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • Publication Date: 19770000
    Description: p. 11-18; Figures(7); Tables(4)
    Abstract: The findings of an evaluation of Pennsylvania's Free Transit Program for senior Citizens are reported. Impacts on both senior citizen users and participating transit operators are analyzed. Personal interviews were conducted with over 2100 elderly persons and 5 participating transit operators. Telephone interviews were conducted with an additional 154 older persons, and 36 transit operators returned written questionnaires. Based on these surveys it was concluded that the program has benefited senior citizens by enhancing their mobility. Individual trip making has increased by an average of 8.2 rides/month. In addition, new riders--generally those with lower incomes--were attracted to transit. Users reported significant cash savings, beyond the fare savings, as a result of being able to travel to lower priced stores. Transit operators generally felt positive about the program despite a dissatisfaction with the compensation received and the method of determining it. Operators enjoy an improved image in the community as a result of their participation while experiencing no major program-related cost increases. /Author/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    This paper appeared in Transportation Research Record No. 660, Improving Transportation Services for the Elderly, the Handicapped, and the Disadvantaged.
    TRT Terms: Aged; Attitudes; Data collection; Economic benefits; Free fares; Interviewing; Low income groups; Mobility; Surveys
    Other Terms: Attitudes (Mental); Elderly; Free transportation; Surveys (Data collection)
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING
    Availability:
  • Transportation Research Board Business Office
    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20001 USA
  • TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: TRENTON FREE-FARE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
    Accession No: 00189344
    Authors:
  • Knight, R
  • Period Covered: 7710-7802
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • De Leuw, Cather and Company
    165 West Wacker Drive
    Chicago, IL 60601 USA
  • Publication Date: 19781200
    Description: 100 p.
    Abstract: The "Trenton Free-Fare Demonstration" is the first large-scale test of free transit in the U.S. The New Jersey Department of Transportation, in cooperation with UMTA, Mercer County, and Mercer County Improvement Authority, is administering an Off-Peak Free-Fare Demonstration Project on the Mercer Metro bus system. The demonstration involves the implementation of a fare-free service on all intra-county routes from 10 am to 2 pm and after 6 pm Monday through Saturday, and all day on Sundays and holidays. The free-fare operation is planned for one year, beginning March 1978. The demonstration is intended as a model for possible use elsewhere across the country as well as for further policy and program development in Mercer County. This document presents a plan for evaluating the impacts of a free-fare off-peak transit demonstration in Mercer County, New Jersey. The evaluation plan describes the demonstration setting, the details of the project, the evaluation issues (travel behavior, transportation supply and costs, secondary effects, and the implementation process), the evaluation strategy, the data collection plan, and the techniques to be used in analyzing the results. The central concern is ridership impact. A list of free-fare references and seven appendixes are included in this report. The appendixes display data collection tools already employed (Appendixes A-E), outline a related research effort of the National Bureau of Standards in which this project's data are to be used (F), and describe the DeLeuw, Cather evaluating staffing and management approach (G). /UMTA/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Sponsored by the Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Under contract to the Transportation Systems Center.
    TRT Terms: Bus lines; Bus transit; Demonstration projects; Fares; Free fares; Implementation; Ridership; Travel patterns
    Other Terms: Bus transportation (Intracity); Free transportation
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    ISBN: NJ-52-0001
    Contract Number: DOT-TSC-1409
    Report Number: UMTA-NJ-52-0001-78-1
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-291455
    Document Source:
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FARE-FREE TRANSIT: DO WE REALLY NEED A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT?
    Accession No: 00193806
    Authors:
  • Stranger, R M
  • Journal Title:
  • ITE Journal Vol. 48 No. 11
    Publisher: Institute of Transportation Engineers
    ISSN: 0162-8178 OCLC: 4061418
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers
    1099 14th Street, NW
    Washington, DC 20005-3438 USA
  • Publication Date: 19781100
    Description: p. 30-32
    Abstract: Benefits and costs of fare-free transit are discussed together with the certain key points that can be made.
    TRT Terms: Benefit cost analysis; Costs; Demonstration projects; Free fares; Highway transportation
    Other Terms: Free transportation; Motor transportation
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING
    Availability:
  • Linda Hall Library
    5109 Cherry Street
    Kansas City, MO 64110-2498 USA
  • Document Source:
  • Engineering Index
  • Source Data: ****** EIX790200066
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS FARE-FREE BUS RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
    Accession No: 00197651
    Authors:
  • Goss, W P
  • Shuldinger, P W
  • Giglio, R J
  • Kaczka, E E
  • Webster, L A
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • University of Massachusetts, Amherst
    Amherst, MA USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19780400
    Description: 312 p.
    Abstract: This final report on the Amherst, Massachusetts Fare-Free Bus Research and Demonstration Project reviews the project background and scope, details its conduct and extensive data collection and analysis, presents findings and conclusions, and discusses the transferability of these findings and conclusions to other urban areas. The major objectives of the project was to determine to what extent at first providing a fare-free bus service, and later, increasing restrictions on intra-campus automobile use would have in a shift away from commuting by automobile in favor of commuting by bus. There was also concern as to how changes in transportation services would affect community attitudes toward public transportation. Significant findings were that: (1) introducing high frequency, fare-free transit services attracts high levels of ridership of low income groups, while only slightly reducing automobile usage and traffic congestion; (2) increased parking fees are not as effective a deterrent to automobile use as are reduced parking availability and strict parking regulations enforcement; (3) increases in parking fees that are perceived as relatively large, will be met with strong opposition from lower income workers for whom the automobile is the only available mode; and (4) fare-free transit will have significantly positive impact on the demand for multi-family housing and sales volumes of retail establishments, depending upon their relative proximity to transit bus stops.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    See also report dated March 76, PB-251502.
    TRT Terms: Automobiles; Bus transit; Buses; Constraints; Demonstration projects; Evaluation; Free fares; Low income groups; Parking; Parking facilities; Public transit; Reduction (Chemistry); Ridership; Students; Traffic congestion; Transportation operations; Travel demand; Universities and colleges; Urban areas; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Massachusetts
    Other Terms: Bus transportation (Intracity); Buses vehicles; Free transportation; Reduction; Transportation management; Universities
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    Report Number: UMTA-MA-06-0006-79-1
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-295097/0ST
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Source Data: u7918
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: DENVER OFF-PEAK FREE FARE PUBLIC TRANSIT EXPERIMENT
    Accession No: 00199003
    Authors:
  • Swan, S
  • McKnight, R
  • Period Covered: 7802-7809
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • De Leuw, Cather and Company
    120 Howard Street
    San Francisco, CA 94120 USA
  • Transportation Systems Center
    55 Broadway, Kendall Square
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19790500
    Description: 59 p.
    Abstract: The Denver project investigates the effects of the elimination of off-peak fares on transit operations and costs, ridership, public attitudes, and regional travel patterns. The Denver experiment indicates that a systemwide free-fare program can be implemented with fairly minimal disruption and attract many new riders to transit during low-productivity hours. The distribution of the benefits of such a program among socio-economic and racial groups appears to be similar to that of the prior transit service. The cost of such free service is very high, constituting a major obstacle to implementation in most cities. However, if further study in Denver supports early indications, temporary free fare programs may be more successful in increasing the permanent ridership base than any other strategy yet attempted.
    TRT Terms: Attitudes; Benefits; Evaluation; Fares; Free fares; Level of service; Off peak periods; Operating costs; Public transit; Regional transportation; Ridership; Socioeconomic factors; Traffic; Transportation planning; Travel patterns; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    Colorado
    Other Terms: Attitudes (Mental); Free transportation; Off-peak traffic; Profiles; Regional planning (Transportation); Services; Socioeconomic aspects
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    Contract Number: DOT-TSC-1409
    Report Number: UMTA-CO-06-0010-79-1Intrm Rpt.
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-298783/2ST
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Source Data: u7923
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FINDINGS OF PRELIMINARY ANALYSES OF THE TRENTON OFF-PEAK FARE-FREE TRANSIT DEMONSTRATION
    Accession No: 00199010
    Authors:
  • Connor, D L
  • Period Covered: 7711-7806
    Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • De Leuw, Cather and Company
    1250 Broadway
    New York, NY 10001 USA
  • Transportation Systems Center
    55 Broadway, Kendall Square
    Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
  • Urban Mass Transportation Administration
    400 7th Street, SW
    Washington, DC 20590 USA
  • Publication Date: 19790100
    Description: 58 p.
    Abstract: The report was prepared as an interim informational summary of the progress of the Trenton Fare-Free Demonstration. It presents findings of interim analyses regarding ridership impacts; passenger profiles and trip characteristics; and transportation supply and cost impacts. Given the limitation of this report, it can be useful as an interim informational summary pending completion of the full evaluation and preparation of the final project report. The report concludes that: Mercer Metro off-peak ridership has increased 45-50 percent during all free-fare periods; the Bus drivers have complained that the program has caused them to be late more often and to miss breaks because of more passengers and additional stops; and the cost of additional bus and driver service has increased but has not yet been estimated.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    See also report dated Dec 78, PB-291 455.
    TRT Terms: Attitudes; Bus transit; Costs; Demonstration projects; Economic impacts; Evaluation; Free fares; Level of service; Off peak periods; Passengers; Public transit; Ridership; Traffic; Transportation planning; Travel patterns; Urban transportation
    Geographical
    Terms:
    New Jersey
    Other Terms: Bus transportation (Intracity); Demonstration; Free transportation; Off-peak traffic; Profiles; Services; Urban transportation planning
    Subject Areas: U25 FARES & PRICING; H12 PLANNING
    Contract Number: DOT-TSC-1409
    Report Number: UMTA-NJ-52-0001-79-1Intrm Rpt.
    Availability:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Order Number: PB-298893/9ST
    Document Source:
  • National Technical Information Service
    5285 Port Royal Road
    Springfield, VA 22161 USA
  • Source Data: u7923
    TRIS Files: UMTRIS; HRIS; NTIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: GOVERNOR SHAPP: THE CASE FOR FREE TRANSIT
    Accession No: 00201040
    Journal Title:
  • Railway Age
    Publisher: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation
    ISSN: 0033-8826 OCLC: 1586268
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation
    345 Hudson Street
    New York, NY 10014 USA
  • Publication Date: 19710913
    Abstract: IN AN INTERVIEW, GOVERNOR SHAPP OF PENNSYLVANIA EMPHASIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUTER AND STATEWIDE RAIL SERVICE IN HIS STATE, CRITICIZES THE SERVICE CUTBACKS RESULTING FROM THE PENN CENTRAL MERGER, AND SUPPORTS THE CONCEPT OF ZERO TRANSIT FARES AS A MEANS OF GETTING PEOPLE OUT OF AUTOMOBILES AND OF REVIVING THE INNER CITY.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Vol 171, No 5, PP 86, 90, 1 PHOT
    TRT Terms: Commuting; Fares; Freight transportation; Intercity transportation; Prices; Public transit; Railroad transportation
    Other Terms: Commuter transportation; Mass transit; Rail transportation
    Subject Areas: H14 FINANCE
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: AN EVALUATION OF FREE TRANSIT SERVICE
    Accession No: 00241154
    Journal Title:
  • Clearinghouse Fed Sci & Tech Info
    Publisher: National Association of Housing & Redeve
  • Corp. Authors
    / Publisher:
  • Charles River Associates, Incorporated
    200 Clarendon Street, John Hancock Tower
    Boston, MA 02116 USA
  • National Association of Housing & Redeve
  • Publication Date: 19680800
    Abstract: A FREE TRANSIT SERVICE, GIVEN A LIMITED AMOUNT OF TIME AND BUDGET, WAS EVALUATED. THE STUDY ENCOMPASSED FOUR RELATED TASKS: (1) IDENTIFY THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, TECHNOLOGICAL AND FINANCIAL FACTORS THAT ARE SIGNIFICANT IN EVALUATING A PROPOSAL TO PROVIDE FREE TRANSIT SERVICE TO METROPOLITAN AREA USERS, (2) PROVIDE GROSS ESTIMATES OF THE SUBSIDY REQUIRED FOR NATIONWIDE FREE TRANSIT SERVICE, (3) CONDUCT A CASE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE FACTORS THAT ARE IDENTIFIED AS SIGNIFICANT IN CONSIDERING A PROGRAM OF FREE TRANSIT, AND (4) IDENTIFY THE FUTURE RESEARCH THAT IS NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE EVALUATION. BOSTON HAS BEEN SELECTED FOR THE CASE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND FINDINGS FROM PREVIOUS RESEARCH WORK. /AUTHOR/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    PB-179
    TRT Terms: Economic factors; Evaluation; Finance; Free fares; Passenger transportation; Social values; Subsidies; Technology; Transportation; Urban transportation
    Other Terms: Financial requirements; Free transportation systems; Transportation systems
    Subject Areas: H12 PLANNING
    Report Number: 177 pp
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: FREE MASS TRANSIT
    Accession No: 00201296
    Authors:
  • Somerville, R
  • Conference Title:
  • Intl Conf Urban Transportation
  • Publication Date: 19660200
    Abstract: FREE MASS TRANSIT IS SUGGESTED BY THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE ATLANTA TRANSIT SYSTEM. OTHERS HAVE SECONDED THE IDEA. BUT FREE SERVICE ALONE WILL NOT ENTICE PEOPLE FROM THEIR CARS. THE SERVICE MUST BE CLEAN, MODERN, CONVENIENT, AND EXTENSIVE ENOUGH TO COVER A LOGICAL REGION, NOT SIMPLY A LOCAL CITY AREA. VARIOUS SUGGESTIONS, FROM BOND FINANCING TO TAX SUPPORT, HAVE BEEN FORWARDED AS MEANS OF FINANCING SUCH OPERATIONS. IN ADDITION TO THE FINANCING PROBLEMS, LABOR PROBLEMS MUST ALSO BE SOLVED, AS THE MOST EFFICIENT SYSTEMS WILL BE AUTOMATED ONES. PRESENT FEDERAL STANDARDS COVER COLLECTIVE-BARGAINING AGREEMENTS, RETRAINING FOR DISPLACED WORKERS, AND RE-EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS.
    Supplemental
    Information:
    First Proc, PP 9-1 TO 9-6
    TRT Terms: Bonds; Economic impacts; Labor relations; Personnel management; Public transit; Taxation
    Other Terms: Free; Industrial relations; Mass transit
    Subject Areas: H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online


    Title: THE CASE FOR FREE TRANSIT
    Accession No: 00202049
    Authors:
  • Aleshire, R A
  • Journal Title:
  • Nations Cities Vol. 9 No. 10
  • Abstract: OVER 200 MILLION CARS ARE ON THE EARTH; 23 MILLION MORE ARE PRODUCED ANNUALLY; AND CLOSE TO 200,000 WILL ROLL OFF THE ASSEMBLY LINE THIS WEEK. TRAFFIC-CHOKED CITIES PROVIDE THE STAGE FOR DAILY COMMUTING TRAGEDY. MEN AND MACHINES PLAY OUT A SYMPHONY OF WASTED TIME, WASTED LAND, AND WASTED AIR. ONE SEEMINGLY WORKABLE APPROACH IS FREE MASS TRANSIT PROVIDING UNLIMITED ACCESS TO ALL CITIZENS. BENEFITS NOTED ARE: 1) THE AMOUNT OF LAND AND MONEY NEEDED TO BUILD HIGHWAYS WOULD BE REDUCED; 2) LOWER AUTO USAGE WOULD REDUCE POLLUTION; 3) LOWER BARRIERS TO INNER CITY POOR WORKERS IN REACHING SUBURBAN JOB; 4) PROVIDE UNLIMITED ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES, RECREATION, JOBS AND HOUSING; 5) GREATER PATRONAGE IN CENTRAL CITY STORES. SOME OF THE SETBACKS ARE IN THE AREAS OF AVAILABILITY TO PUBLIC NEEDS, PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE OWNERSHIP AND THE AGE OLD IDEA THAT THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM MUST MAKE A PROFIT. IF NOTHING IS MORE POWERFUL THAN AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME, PERHAPS A NEW "ERA OF ACCESS AND MOBILITY" CAN REPLACE A "CAR SICK SOCIETY". /AUTHOR/
    Supplemental
    Information:
    Vol 9, No 10, PP25-29
    TRT Terms: Commuters; Economic impacts; Environmental impacts; Intercity transportation; Public transit; Social factors
    Other Terms: Environmental effects; Mass transit; Sociological aspects
    Subject Areas: H15 SOCIOECONOMICS
    TRIS Files: HRIS
    Database: TRIS Online



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